|A biological type is
specimen(s) or the illustration of
an organism selected by the
author(s) of a species or by
subsequent author(s) to be the standard reference for the name
which defines the
characteristics of the whole
single specimen described and considered the standard reference of
a new species name.
Paratype, A biological specimen
other than the holotype used for the development of the original
Isotype, A duplicate specimen of
the holotype collected in the same place and time.
Allotype a comparative specimen
of the opposite sex to the holotype
Neotype a substitute specimen
selected if the holotype was destroyed or otherwise lost
Isoneotype a duplicate
of the neotype
Syntypes. two or more specimens
describing of a new species when the author did not select a
duplicates of a syntype.
Lectotype One single specimen
later selected from the syntypes as the definitive type example
Paralectotypes After the
definitive chosen of the lectotype the remainder syntypes become
later specimen used as an interpretative type when the
Topotypes, The specimens
collected at type locality,
from the topotypical population.
The various types described above are needed because
many species description go back one or two centuries and type
designation was not always done, types were not always well kept or
preserved, or intervening events have resulted in destruction of
original type material. Some older botanical types are actually
illustrations rather than specimens.